A view from above: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV s) provide a new tool for assessing liana infestation in tropical forest canopies. 


Waite, C. E., van der Heijden, G. M., Field, R., & Boyd, D. S. 





Tropical forests store and sequester large quantities of carbon, mitigating climate change. Lianas (woody vines) are important tropical forest components, most conspicuous in the canopy. Lianas reduce forest carbon uptake and their recent increase may, therefore, limit forest carbon storage with global consequences for climate change. Liana infestation of tree crowns is traditionally assessed from the ground, which is labour intensive and difficult, particularly for upper canopy layers. We used a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV ) to assess liana infestation of tree canopies from above. It was a commercially available quadcopter UAV with an integrated, standard three‐waveband camera to collect aerial image data for 150 ha of tropical forest canopy. By visually interpreting the images, we assessed the degree of liana infestation for 14.15 ha of forest for which ground‐based estimates were collected simultaneously. We compared the UAV liana infestation estimates with those from the ground to determine the validity, strengths, and weaknesses of using UAV s as a new method for assessing liana infestation of tree canopies. Estimates of liana infestation from the UAV correlated strongly with ground‐based surveys at individual tree and plot level, and across multiple forest types and spatial resolutions, improving liana infestation assessment for upper canopy layers. Importantly, UAV ‐based surveys, including the image collection, processing, and visual interpretation, were considerably faster and more cost‐efficient than ground‐based surveys. Synthesis and applications . Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image data of tree canopies can be easily captured and used to assess liana infestation at least as accurately as traditional ground data. This novel method promotes reproducibility of results and quality control, and enables additional variables to be derived from the image data. It is more cost‐effective, time‐efficient and covers larger geographical extents than traditional ground surveys, enabling more comprehensive monitoring of changes in liana infestation over space and time. This is important for assessing liana impacts on the global carbon balance, and particularly useful for forest management where knowledge of the location and change in liana infestation can be used for tailored, targeted, and effective management of tropical forests for enhanced carbon sequestration (e.g., REDD + projects), timber concessions, and forest restoration.



The Liana Ecology Project is supported by Marquette University and funded in part by the National Science Foundation.