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 Protected Areas and Biodiversity of the Kingdom of Bhutan. 

Geography and Natural Resources

Geography and Natural Resources

40(2)

187-194

Vitaceae (the grape family) consist of 16 genera and ca. 950 species primarily distributed in tropical regions. The family is well‐known for the economic importance of grapes, and is also ecologically significant with many species as dominant climbers in tropical and temperate forests. Recent phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses of sequence data from all three genomes have supported five major clades within Vitaceae: (i) the clade of Ampelopsis , Nekemias , Rhoicissus , and Clematicissus ; (ii) the Cissus clade; (iii) the clade of Cayratia , Causonis , Cyphostemma , Pseudocayratia , Tetrastigma , and an undescribed genus “Afrocayratia ”; (iv) the clade of Parthenocissus and Yua ; and (v) the grape genus Vitis and its close tropical relatives Ampelocissus , Pterisanthes and Nothocissus , with Nothocissus and Pterisanthes nested within Ampelocissus . Based on the phylogenetic and morphological (mostly inflorescence, floral and seed characters) evidence, the new classification places the 950 species and 16 genera into five tribes: (i) tribe Ampelopsideae J.Wen & Z.L.Nie, trib. nov. (47 species in four genera; Ampelopsis , Nekemias , Rhoicissus and Clematicissus ); (ii) tribe Cisseae Rchb. (300 species in one genus; Cissus ); (iii) tribe Cayratieae J.Wen & L.M.Lu, trib. nov. (370 species in seven genera; Cayratia , Causonis , “Afrocayratia ”, Pseudocayratia , Acareosperma , Cyphostemma and Tetrastigma ); (iv) tribe Parthenocisseae J.Wen & Z.D.Chen, trib. nov. (ca. 16 spp. in two genera; Parthenocissus and Yua ); and (v) tribe Viteae Dumort. (ca. 190 species in two genera; Ampelocissus and Vitis ).

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The Liana Ecology Project is supported by Marquette University and funded in part by the National Science Foundation.